Vernacular - English


a-1adj prefixstate or condition of Topic. This affix indicates that the Topic of the clause is in the condition specified by the root of the word. The affix occurs with both adjective and verb roots. See Grammar Sketch, sec. 5.3.9(m)a(níwang)adjthin. From the root niwang "thin"Maniwang man siya gihapon.He is still thin.(m)a(tahóm)adjbeautiful. From the root tahom "beautiful"Nakita ni Angelito an mga matahom na regalo.The beautiful gifts were-able-to-be-seen by Angelito.(m)a(dudubók)vwill become rotten. From the root dubok "become rotten"Madudubok an iya isda.His fish will-become-rotten.
a-2vb prefixability of actor to perform the action of the verb root. This forms a passive construction in which an actor acts on an object which is the topic of the sentence. If the actor is not stated, then the object is in the state indicated by the verb root. The affix only occurs with the aspect affixes m- or n-, thus ma- and na-. For more information see the Grammatical Sketch, Sec. 5.39(m)a(lantáw)vable to be seen. From the root lantaw "to see from a distance"Malantaw mo gayod an intiro syudad.The entire city will really be-able-to-be-seen by-you.(m)a(batî)vsomething can be heard. From the root bati "to hear"Mabati mo an mga hinuni san mga sapat.The chirpings of-the birds will-be-able-to-be-heard by-you.cfaka- ability of actor to do something
a-3vb prefixaction in progress. The prefix a3- marks a verb for continuing aspect to indicate action in progress in both active and passive verbsIn active verbs a- is added to the mag- and nag- prefixes, thus maga- and naga-. The affix maga- indicates action not begun but viewed as anticipated, continuing, action. This is usually translated into English as a future tense verb but when used in past time situations it is contrafactual, that is, it indicates action that would have been done but wasn't. The affix naga- indicates action begun and still in progress. It is usually translated into English as a present tense verb. However, when used in a past time context it is translated as action which was in progress in that past time. The CV- reduplication affix is an alternate means of indicating action in progress. See the Grammatical Sketch, Sec. 5.24.(nag-)a(ágay)vis flowing. From the verb root agay "to flow"Igwa sin tubi na nagaagay hali sa ibabaw.There-is water which flows/is-flowing from above.(gin)a(gukdán)vwas being chased. From the verb root gukod "to chase". In passive verbs the affix a- is added to the gin- prefix, thus gina-, which has meaning similar to naga- but for passive verbs.Ginagukdan niya an tawo pero wara madakop.The man was-being-chased by-him but he was not able-to-be-caught.VariantCV reduplicationaction in progress
-avb suffixMarks Obligatory Objective Voice action. This verb suffix replaces the -on suffix for Objective Voice when the verb is to be marked for objective focus and obligatory action on an object. Verbs marked for the Obligatory action are not inflected for the other aspects at the same timeSee Grammatical Sketch, Sec. 5.25.(kitâ)av(look) obligatory"Sin-o ina? Kitaa daw anay, Boboy," an sabi ni Ito."Who is that? Please look-obligatory first, Boboy," said Ito.
abaaabàáinterj oh yeah? An exclamation of disbelief or disgustAbaa? Kun didto ako, damo man siguro ako sin kuha.Oh-yeah? If I had-been-there, probably I would also have-caught-a-lot.
abadawabadáwinterj wow! An exclamation of surpriseAbadaw! Nakita ta ikaw kaupod an imo tsik.Wow! You, together-with your chick (girl friend), were-able-to-be-seen by me.synadawwow
abagaabágan shoulder. Refers to that part of the anatomy of an animate being between the head and the upper arm. It also has figurative meaningsAn abaga ko masakit.My shoulder is painful.abagáhanadj broad shouldered. Refers to the physical build of a personSi Juan abagahan.Juan is broad-shouldered.abágahonv [c14] -ON pat. be shouldered figurativelyGin-abaga ko an tanan niya na gastos.All her expenses were-shouldered by-me.cfpas-an
abakaabakán Manila hemp. Refers to both the tree and the fiber gotten from it.A relative of the banana tree, abaka is grown for the tough fibers of the trunk which are used to make rope. Its flowers and leaves are used as medicineMusa textilisabakahánabaka plantationIgwa'n kami abakahan.We-excl have-an abaka plantation.
abakadaabakádan alphabet. The word is derived from the first four letters of the Filipino alphabet: a, ba, ka, da (a, b, c, d)Naarman mo ba an abakada?Has the alphabet been-learned by-you?
abakosábakosChn abacus calculator. Refers to the Chinese calculator used throughout Southeast Asia
abangabángn roadblock, barrierAmo ina an abang sa mga rebelde.That is the roadblock against-the rebels.cfbara3 hindrancemag-abángv [c7] 1MAG- ag; -AN pat; I- acc. await something, watch for and stop somethingMag-abang ka sin traysikil.You watch-for-and stop a tricycle.cfbantay 2waitSi Celso nag-abang sa tunga san dalan.Celso waited in-the middle of-the path.ìabángv block by means of somethingIabang mo ina na bato sa kamino agod mag-udong an trak.Let that stone be-used by-you to-block the road so-that the truck will-stop.abangánv be blockedArabangan ba naton sinda Pedro para dili makadiritso sa inda kakadtuan?Shall Pedro-and-friends be-blocked by-us-incl so-that they-cannot-go-directly to their destination?
abanikoabaníkoSpn hand fan. This refers to the familiar folding fan made from wood or plastic sticks tied together at one end and partially covered with paper so that the free ends of the sticks can open out held together by the paper. When spread open it is used to produce a breeze intended to cool the person fanningAn iya abaniko matahom.Her fan is beautiful.Fans are also used to fan the embers of a fire into flame. Today fans are found in many varieties but are usually electric powered propellers which produce the breezesynpaypay hand fankabkab hand fanmag-abaníkov [c7] MAG- ag; -AN loc; I- inst/ben. Fan with somethingNagaabaniko siya san notbok.She is-fanning with-a notebook.
abanteabánteSpv [c8] MAG- act; -ON goal; -AN loc; I- ben: proceedAbante, namamati ako.Proceed, I am-listening.synsigi continuemag-abántev Advance, go forwardabantihónv be opposed, go against, move againstAbantihon mo ba an daragko na balod?Will you oppose the big waves?
abatábatCebn witch. Refers to someone, usually an imaginary person, said to frighten others usually in a dark secluded placeIgwa dida sin abat.There-is a witch there.abátann witch's haunt, scary place, spooky place. Refers to any place where hearsay says there are witches or elves which are thought to harm people, or at least, play tricks on themAbatan ina na lugar.That place is a witch's-haunt.abátonv [c13] -ON pat; I- inst. Scare someone. Refers to scaring someone by jumping out at them from a dark place as it is supposed witches doAbaton ta an mga paraagi.Let us scare the passers-by.synhadlukonfrighten, scare
abatonv scare
abayábayCebn 1companionsynbarkada companionkaupodcompanionkapwa fellowman2wedding attendant. Includes also the best man and the maid of honorSi Pedro ginkuha na abay sa kasal.Pedro was-taken as a wedding-attendant in-the wedding.mag-ábayv [c3] MAG- act; -AN goal. accompany, go together with, escortNagaabay sinda sa paglakat.They are-strolling together.synupod accompany
abayawabayáwv [c2] MAG- expmag-abayáwv left behind. Refers to a situation in which someone, frequently a child, wants to accompany another but is refusedAn bata nagatangis kay nagaabayaw sa iya iloy.The child is-crying because he is-being-left-behind by his mother.synibilinleave something behindmabayaanleave behindmainabayáwonadj be left behindMainabayawon an bata sa iya iloy.The child was-left-behind by his mother.
abi1ábin yamIbahon mo an daragko na abi sa tirigdyutay.Separate the big yams from-the small-ones.cfubiyamDioscorea alataabihányam garden
abi2abív [c2] MAG- agmag-abív relinquish, hand over, surrender something
abi-abiabi-abív [c2] MAG- actmag-abi-abív welcome, receive someone warmlypag-abi-abín welcomingMas lalo kami na malipay ni Ramon tungod san pag-abi-abi niyo sa amon.Ramon and I are even happier because of your welcoming of us.
abilidadabilidádSpn ability, skill, aptitude, competence, powerNaghatag siya sin ispisyal na abilidad sa mga tawo.He gave special abilities to-the people.
abir1abírSpinterj look here, let's see, all right, now then. This is an interjection to emphasize the point of a response in a discussion. The translation into English varies depending on the context of the discussionNagsabi an isad na bata, "Maaram ako magsakay sin karabaw." Sabi man san isad, "Abir, kitaon ko kun maaram ka man gayod."A child said, "I know how to ride a water-buffalo." Another child replied, "All-right, I'll-see if you really know-how."
abir2abírconj whether, even though, even ifMalipay sinda kun maabtan na preparado abir tunga'n gab-i o maaga.They will-be-happy if they-are-prepared when anyone-arrives whether at midnight or early-morning.Abir dili pa niyo siya nakita, nagasunod gihapon na kamo sa iya.Even-though you-pl have not yet seen him, you-pl are still following him.cfbaga2 as though
abir3abírv [c4] MAG- ag; -ON patmag-abírv attempt, try, endeavorabirónv attempted, be... , tried, be... , endeavored, be... . Refers to trying a course of action even though one is unsure of the outcomeAbiron mo si Pedro kun makahuram ka sin kwarta.Try Pedro to-see-if you can borrow some money from him.synhinguha try
abiriyaabiríyav [c2] MAG- expmag-abiríyav Malfunction, break down, fail. Refers to an inanimate experiencer which breaks down. Usually refers to situations in which a running engine stops due to trouble or break downNag-abiriya an makina sa lantsa kaya nag-udong anay kami dida sa lawod.The engine in-the launch malfunctioned so we-excl stopped for-a-while there in-the sea.